# Mathematics

## Proficiencies

**Understanding** includes making connections between representations of numbers, using fractions to represent probabilities, comparing and ordering fractions and decimals and representing them in various ways, describing transformations and identifying line and rotational symmetry.

**Fluency** includes choosing appropriate units of measurement for calculation of perimeter and area, using estimation to check the reasonableness of answers to calculations and using instruments to measure angles.

**Problem Solving** includes formulating and solving authentic problems using whole numbers and measurements and creating financial plans.

**Reasoning** includes investigating strategies to perform calculations efficiently, continuing patterns involving fractions and decimals, interpreting results of chance experiments, posing appropriate questions for data investigations and interpreting data sets.

## Achievement Standard

By the end of the year students are expected to:

**Number and Algebra**

- solve simple problems involving the four operations using a range of strategies including digital technology;
- estimate to check the reasonableness of answers and approximate answers by rounding;
- identify and describe factors and multiples;
- explain plans for simple budgets;
- order decimals and unit fractions and locate them on a number line;
- add and subtract fractions with the same denominator;
- find unknown quantities in number sentences and continue patterns by adding or subtracting fractions and decimals.

**Measurement and Geometry**

- use appropriate units of measurement for length, area, volume, capacity and mass, and calculate perimeter and area of rectangles;
- convert between 12 and 24-hour time;
- use a grid reference system to locate landmarks;
- estimate angles, and use protractors and digital technology to construct and measure angles;
- connect three-dimensional objects with their two-dimensional representations;
- describe transformations of two-dimensional shapes and identify line and rotational symmetry.

**Statistics and Probability**

- pose questions to gather data and construct various displays appropriate for the data, with and without the use of digital technology;
- compare and interpret different data sets;
- list outcomes of chance experiments with equally likely outcomes and assign probabilities as a number from 0 to 1.